Lead–antimony alloys containing 1–12% antimony are used as grid materials in a wide variety of lead–acid batteries in automobiles, stationary power storage, and traction applications. Lead–antimony alloys are extremely strong and creep resistant and are able to be cast directly in a permanent book mold into the desired grid or part shape.
* Low antimony alloys containing 1–2.7% antimony are used primarily as grid alloys for automobile batteries. The low antimony content reduces transfer of antimony to the negative grid and reduces water loss, particularly when combined with a Pb–Ca negative grid.
* The medium antimony alloys containing 2.75–6% antimony are used as positive grids for small traction batteries such as the golf cart, wheel chair, marine, and large batteries such as industrial fork lift trucks and mining vehicles.
* Lead–antimony alloys containing 9–12% antimony are generally utilized to cast long-spined grids for tubular stationary or traction batteries.